Preparation method of metal matrix composite electronic packaging material

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Liquid Process

This method encompasses gas pressure infiltration casting, squeeze casting, and pressure-free infiltration casting. Gas pressure infiltration casting utilizes gas to transmit pressure, pressing the molten metal into the preform to obtain a composite material. Preforms can be made through common pressing, slurry casting, and injection molding methods. This method is highly effective for producing electronic packaging materials, achieving composite materials with added particle volume percentages ranging from 50% to 80%. However, it has the disadvantages of a slower production process and lower applied pressure. Squeeze casting involves making the reinforcement into a preform, placing the preform in a mold, and infiltrating the molten metal into the reinforcement preform through liquid pressure. Although there may be some residual gas in the produced electronic packaging material, the material quality is good, with the advantages of a short production cycle and mass production capabilities. The disadvantages include higher production costs, high requirements for infiltration pressure and molds, and significant limitations on the complexity of part shapes. The manufacturing process for pressure-free infiltration casting involves placing the matrix alloy ingot onto the preform, introducing a controlled atmosphere containing N2, and heating until the alloy melts and spontaneously infiltrates into the preform. The advantages include the ability to vary the amount of Si CP as needed, lower production costs, and the ability to produce complex grid-like electronic packaging materials. The main disadvantages are that it must be performed in a controlled N2 atmosphere, certain areas of the preform may not be fully infiltrated, there may be a certain amount of porosity in the product, and the production process takes a longer time.

Solid-State Process

The solid-state method includes solid-state diffusion and powder metallurgy. Solid-state diffusion is one of the methods for manufacturing continuous fiber-reinforced metal matrix composites. This method has complex processes, higher costs, and greater difficulty. Powder metallurgy involves mixing powders (matrix and reinforcement) in a certain proportion, pressing, sintering under vacuum or inert gas protection, and then performing hot isostatic pressing or isostatic rolling. The advantages of powder metallurgy include uniform particle distribution, good mechanical properties, selectable ranges for both the matrix and reinforcement, and a reinforcement volume fraction that can reach 55%. It is a highly suitable method for preparing various low-expansion particle-reinforced aluminum matrix composites. The disadvantages include high raw material and equipment costs, uneven internal structures of the manufactured composites, and relatively high porosity, which requires secondary plastic processing to improve their overall mechanical properties. Additionally, powder metallurgy processes are relatively complex and must be performed in a sealed, vacuum, or protective atmosphere, resulting in higher equipment and production costs, as well as limitations on part structure and size.

Spray Deposition Method

Using spray deposition technology to prepare particle-reinforced metal matrix composites is an important direction for the recent development of this technology. However, most of the current domestic and international preparation technologies involve spraying a certain amount of reinforcement particles into the atomization cone during the spray deposition process, forcibly mixing them with metal droplets, and then co-depositing them on the depositor to obtain a composite billet. The major disadvantage of this method is the low utilization rate of reinforcement particles and high material preparation costs.