What are the manufacturing methods for molybdenum-copper alloys?

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Liquid phase sintering method: Tungsten-copper or molybdenum-copper mixed powders are pressed and formed, followed by liquid phase sintering at 1300-1500°C. Materials produced by this method exhibit poor uniformity, numerous closed pores, and a density typically below 98%. However, the addition of a small amount of nickel through activated sintering, mechanical alloying, or oxide reduction methods to prepare ultrafine or nanometer powders can improve sintering activity, thus enhancing the density of tungsten-copper and molybdenum-copper alloys. Nickel-activated sintering can significantly reduce the electrical and thermal conductivity of the material, while impurities introduced by mechanical alloying can also affect the material's conductivity. The oxide co-reduction method for powder preparation involves a complicated process, low production efficiency, and difficulty in mass production.

Tungsten or molybdenum skeleton infiltration method: Tungsten or molybdenum powders are pressed and formed, sintered to form a porous tungsten or molybdenum skeleton, followed by copper infiltration. This method is suitable for tungsten-copper and molybdenum-copper products with low copper content. Compared to molybdenum-copper, tungsten-copper has advantages such as lighter weight, easier processing, comparable linear expansion coefficient, thermal conductivity, and some key mechanical properties. Although its heat resistance is inferior to tungsten-copper, it still outperforms some current heat-resistant materials, making it promising for applications. However, due to the poor wettability of molybdenum-copper compared to tungsten-copper, especially when preparing low-copper content molybdenum-copper, the density of the material after infiltration is relatively low, resulting in inadequate air tightness, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity, limiting its applications.